During storage, the properties of elastomer products can be damaged either by chemical reactions or by physical processes. Chemical reactions are basically caused by the influence of heat, light, oxygen, ozone or contamination by chemicals. The physical processes, which are called physical ageing, are either due to the influence of external stresses leading to cracks and permanent deformation, or due to the migration of plasticizers, which makes the material more brittle and can lead to deformation of the parts.
Therefore, elastomer products only maintain their characteristics for several years without major changes, if they are properly stored. The ageing behaviour of elastomer products and their reaction on storage conditions depend considerably on their chemical structure. Unsaturated elastomers (e.g. nitrile rubber) age more quickly under improper storage conditions than saturated elastomers (e.g. fluorocarbon rubber).
Elastomer products should be stored in accordance with the following recommendations, which are in line with the recommendations provided in ISO 2230:2002 or DIN 7716:1982.
- Rubber and plastic products should be stored in a cool and dry room. The relative humidity should be < 65%. Storage temperature should be around 15 °C (60 °F) and not exceed 25 °C (75 °F). If the storage temperature is below 15 °C (60 °F), care should be taken during handling of stored products because they may have stiffened. They should be warmed up slowly at ambient temperature.
- The storage room must not contain any ozone-producing devices, such as electric motors or high-voltage devices.
- Rubber and plastic products should not be exposed to direct sunlight or artificial light with a high UV content (bulbs are preferred to neon lamps).
- Rubber products should not be exposed to drafts. They should be stored in airtight packaging. The package material must not contain plasticizers. Polyethylene is the most suitable package material.
- Contact between rubber products of different compositions should be avoided.
- Contact between rubber and plastic products and chemicals or dangerous metals (e.g. copper, manganese) should be avoided.
- Rubber and plastic products should be stored as tension-free as possible, i.e. the parts should not be subject to tension, pressure or bending. Rubber products, especially seals, must not be hung on nails or tightly folded or rolled for reasons of space.
When stored under the conditions mentioned above, elastomer products retain their typical properties for several years (table 1).
The typical shelf life may be prolonged based on the actual product conditions at the end of the typical shelf life. Trained and experienced experts can approve a prolonged storage period based on a visual inspection of representative samples. The samples should not reveal any permanent distortion, mechanical damage or surface cracking. The material should not show any signs of hardening or softening nor any kind of tackiness.