Axial location of bearings
In general, an interference fit alone is inadequate to locate a bearing ring on a cylindrical seat. Under load, a bearing ring can creep on its seat. Some suitable means to secure the bearing axially is needed.
For a locating bearing, both rings should be secured axially on both sides.
For non-separable bearings in the non-locating position, the ring with an interference fit, typically the inner ring, should be secured axially on both sides. The other ring must be free to move axially on its seat to accommodate axial displacement.
Cylindrical roller bearings in the non-locating position are exceptions. The inner and outer rings of these bearings must be secured axially in both directions.
In machine tool applications, bearings at the tool end generally locate the shaft by transmitting the axial load from the shaft to the housing. In general, then, tool end bearings are located axially, while non-tool end bearings are axially free.